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Liturgical Books

One time, we were celebrating a memorial of a Dominican Saint during the Liturgy of the Hours in our convent in Rome. I was the reader.  Our sub-prior was laughing at me because I had an entire library of liturgical books in front of me: 1)The ordinary  breviary; 2) the proper of the Order of Preachers; 3) the ordinary lectionary for the Divine office; 4) the antiphonary; 5) the hymnal; and 6) a special supplementary hymnal for the hymns to the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Dominic. And all books are in latin! 


The LITURGICAL BOOKS of the Roman Rite are officially issued books that contain the words of the prayers to be recited and indicate the actions to be performed in the celebration of the Catholic liturgy as done in Rome.We shall be listing and describing briefly the primary and the secondary Roman liturgical books. 

The primary liturgical books are:
1. The Roman Missal
2. The Roman Pontifical
3. The Roman Ceremonial of Bishops
4. The Roman Divine Office
5. The Roman Rituals
6. The Roman Martyrology
7.  The Roman Memorial of Rites (obsolete)

The secondary liturgical books are derived from the primary. We shall discuss them briefly under its respective headings.


THE ROMAN MISSAL (Missale Romanum) 
- it is the primary liturgical book of the Roman Catholic Church containing all the instructions (rubrics), texts and chants needed for a priest to celebrate the Eucharist throughout the liturgical year. 

A.Texts and Order of the Eucharistic Celebrations 

1. The Canon of the Mass (Canon Missae) 
- Instructions (rubrics) and texts of the Canon of the Mass as used by bishops during the pontifical Mass. 

2. The Order of Easter Vigil (Ordo Sabbati Sancti) 
- Instructions (rubrics) and texts for the Easter Vigil service.
- it was first introduced in 1951. 

3. The Order of the Mass (Ordo missae) 
- Instructions (rubrics) and texts of the Mass as use by priests.

4. The Order of the Chanted Mass (Ordo Cantus Missae) 
- it is an adaptation of the Gradual to the post-conciliar Missal.

5. Office of Holy Week and Easter (Officium Hebdomadae Sanctae et Paschatis) 
- it contains the texts of Holy Week and Easter services. 

6. Proper Masses (Proprium Missae) 
- it contains a collection of special texts for individual dioceses, religious orders, monasteries, etc. 

7. Missal for the Dead (Missale Defunctorum) 
- The texts for Masses on the occasion of the memory of the dead. 

B. Readings of the Mass 

1. Book of the Gospel (Evangelarium) 
- It contains the Gospel readings usually carried by the deacon during processional. He then placed it on the altar to be used during the Gospel Reading. 

2. Lectionary of the Mass (Lectionarium Missae) 
- it contains the scriptural readings of the mass 
- Since Vat II, the readings are no longer part of the Missal (although sometimes included in its editions) but are collected separately as the Lectionary. 

3. Order of Reading of the Mass (Ordo Lectionum Missae) 
- A list of scriptural readings of the post-conciliar Lectionary throughout the liturgical year.

C. Hymns and Chants of the Mass 

1. Gradual (Graduale) 
- The texts and chant of those parts of the Mass which are sung. 

2. Hymnal (Hymnarium) 
- it contains the hymns that form part of the Divine Office and of the Mass. 

3. Book of Chants (Liber Usualis) 
- A book containing the chants of the Mass and of the Divine Office. 

4. Kyriale 
- Text and chant of the common of the Mass, i.e. Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei. 

THE PONTIFICAL (Pontificale Romanum)
- it is the primary Roman Catholic liturgical book that contains the instructions (rubrics), texts and chants, used by bishops for the administration of the sacraments, and for consecrations and blessings outside Mass, and for certain juridical acts. 
- it is essentially an episcopal ritual, containing the formularies and rubrics for the sacraments of confirmation and Holy orders.
- However, it does not include the rites for the Mass or the Divine Office, which can be found in the Roman Missal and Roman Breviary, respectively. 

A. Concerning the Sacraments 

1. On the Ordination of Priests and Bishops (De Ordinatione Diaconi Presbyteri et Episcopi)
- instructions (rubrics) and texts for the ordination of deacons and priests and for the consecration of bishops.

2. On the Sacred Communion and the Worship of the Eucharistic Mystery outside the Mass (De Sacra Communione et De Cultu Mysterii Eucharistici extra Missam )
- Instructions (rubrics) and texts for the administration of Holy Communion and for the Eucharistic liturgy outside Mass.


3.The Order of Confirmation (Ordo Confirmationis)
- Instructions (rubrics) and texts for the Sacrament of Confirmation.

4. Ordinal (Ordinale)
- Instructions (rubrics) and texts for conferring the Sacrament of Holy Orders. 

B.Concerning the Sacramentals and other rituals

1. Concerning the Installation of acolytes and lectors; Concerning the Admission of Candidates for the Diaconate and presbyterate; Concerning Sacred Celibacy (De Institutione Acolythorum Et Lectorum; De Admissione Inter Candidatos Ad Diaconatum Et Presbyteratum; De Sacro Caelibatu Amplectando) 
- Instructions (rubrics) and texts for the commissioning of acolytes and lectors, for the admission of candidates for the diaconate and priesthood and for embracing clerical celibacy. Post-conciliar. 

2. The Order of Blessing of Abbots and Abbesses (Ordo Benedictionis Abbatis Et Abbatissae) 
- Instructions (rubrics) and texts for blessing abbots and abbesses.

3. The Order of Religious Professsion (Ordo Professionis Religiosae)
- Instructions (rubrics) and texts for religious professions. 

4. The Order of Consecration of the Church and Altar (Ordo Dedicationis Ecclesiae et Altaris)
- Instructions (rubrics) and texts for the consecration of a church and an altar.

5. The Order of Consecration of Virgins (Ordo Consecrationis Virginum) 
- Instructions (rubrics) and texts for the consecration of virgins.

6. The Order of Blessing of the Oil of the Catechumens and the Sick  and Chrism (Ordo Benedicendi Oleum Catechumenorum et Infirmorum et Conficiendi Chrisma) 
Instructions (rubrics) and texts for blessing holy oils.


CEREMONIALS OF BISHOPS 
(Caeremoniale Episcoporum) 
- it is the primary liturgical book of the Roman Catholic Church that contains the instructions (rubrics only) which describes in detail the solemn Church services in Cathedrals and collegiate churches performed by Bishops. 

- The book is in eight parts: 

1. Episcopal liturgy in general 
2. Mass
3. Liturgy of the Hours and Celebrations of the Word of God 
4. Celebrations of the Mysteries of the Lord in the course of the year 
5. Sacraments
6. Sacramentals
7. Noteworthy dates in the life of a bishop 
8. Liturgical celebrations connected with solemn acts of episcopal governance 

There are also appendices on: 

1. The vesture of prelates 
2. A table of liturgical days arranged in order of precedence 
3. A table on Ritual Masses, Masses for Various Needs, Votive Masses and Requiem Masses 
4. Lists of abbreviations and sigla used in the book




DIVINE OFFICE 
(Breviarum, Divinum Officium, Horae Canonicae) 
- it is the primary liturgical book of the Roman Catholic Church that contains all the readings, psalms, antiphons and prayers recited daily by clerics and certain religious as the Divine Office at particular liturgical hours of the day. 
- Since the Second Vatican Council the Breviarium has been replaced by Liturgy of the Hours (Liturgia horarum). 

A.Instructions 

1. The Order of the Divine Office (Ordo Divini Officii) 
- The introductory book that contains the instructions for the celebration the Divine Office every day of the year. 

2. General Rubrics of the Office (Rubricae Generales Officii) 

B. According to the Different Liturgical Hours

1. Day Prayers (Diurnale) 
- it is a single volume of the liturgy of the hours that contains the day (diurnal) hours of the Office (Morning prayer, Daytime prayer, Evening prayer and Night prayer) but excluding the Office of the Readings. 
- its compact arrangement makes it a convenient daily companion for clergy and laity alike. 

2. Morning Prayers (Laudes) 
- it contains the texts and chants forming Lauds or Morning Prayer of the Divine Office. 

3. Evening Prayers (Vesperale) 
- it contains the texts and chants forming Vesper and Compline of the Divine Office. 

4. Night Prayers (Completorium) 
- it contains the texts of the Compline or Night prayer in the Divine Office. 

5. Ad Tertiam; Ad Nonam; Ad Sextam, etc 
- separate books of individual the Liturgical Hours 

C. According to the different Elements in the Divine Office 

1. Antiphonary of the Office (Antiphonarium Officii) 
- it contains texts and chants of sung parts or antiphons of the Divine Office. 

2. Collection of Homilies (Homiliarium) 
- it contains homilies that form part of the Divine Office. 

3. Collection of Hymns (Hymnarium) 
- it contains the hymns that form part of the Divine Office and of the Mass. 

4. Lectionary of the Office (Lectionarium Offici) 
- it contains the lessons or readings that form part of the Divine Office. 

5. Legendary (Legendarium) 
- it contains the biographies of saints forming part of the Divine Office. 

6. Book of Chants (Liber Usualis) 
- A book containing the chants of the Mass and of the Divine Office. 

7. Book of Chants of the Office (Liber Usualis Officii) 
- A book containing the chants of the Divine Office only. 

8. Responsary (Responsoriale) 
- it contains the antiphons and responses forming part of the Divine Office, with chant. 

9. Psalter (Psalterium) 
- it contains the psalms arranged as recited in the Divine Office. 
- It may also contain hymns, antiphons and versicles for choir use. 

10. Proper of Saints (Proprium de sanctis) 
- it contains the text of the celebration of saints in the general Roman calendar or saints specific to a religious order or locality. 

11. Proper of the Season (Proprium de tempore) 
- it contains the texts for the celebration of Advent, Christmas, Lent and Easter. 

12. Common of Saints (Commune sanctorum) 
- it contains texts for the celebration of saints not provided in the proper of saints. 

13. Invitatory (Invitatoria) 
- it contains the invitatory antiphons and psalms in the liturgical calendar. 

D. Special Supplements and Appendices to the Divine Office 

1. Proper Offices (Proprium Officii) 
- it is an appenix to the Breviary that contains a special texts for individual dioceses, religious orders, monasteries, etc. 

2. Office of the Holy Week and Easter (Officium Hebdomadae Sanctae et Paschatis) 
- it contains the texts of Holy Week and Easter services. 

3. Octavarium Romanum 
- It contains lessons for feasts which are only observed in certain localities. 
- it is a liturgical book which may be considered as an appendix to the Roman Breviary, but which has not the official position of the other Roman liturgical books. 

4. Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Officium Parvum Beatae Mariae Virginis) 
- A special office in honor of Our Lady. 

5. Office of the Dead (Officium Pro Defunctis) 
- A particular office on the occasion of the memory of the dead.


BOOK OF RITUALS (Caeremoniale, Rituale) 

- it is a primary liturgical book of the Roman Catholic Church which contains the instructions (rubrics) for the administration of the Sacraments, blessings, and all other Church services performed by a priest or deacon which are not contained within either the Missal or the Divine Office



- It is divided into ten "titles" (tituli); all, except the first, subdivided into chapters. In each (except I and X) the first chapter gives the general rules for the sacrament or function, the others give the exact ceremonies and prayers for various cases of administration. The following are the contents of the English Translation of the Roman Ritual made by Fr. Philip T. Weller in 1964. 

§                     Decree
§                     Apostolic Constitution of Pope Paul V on the Roman Ritual
         I.      The Holy Sacraments
1.    Holy Sacraments - Introduction
2.    Holy Sacraments - General Rules
               II.     The Sacrament of Baptism
1.    Holy Baptism - Introduction
2.    Holy Baptism - General Rules
3.    Rite for baptism of children
4.    Baptism of adults - Introduction
5.    Baptism of adults - General Rules
6.    Norms for new rite for baptism of adults
7.    Rite for baptism of adults
8.    Rite for supplying of ceremonies omitted in baptism
9.    Rite for baptism administered by a bishop
10.Blessing of baptismal water
             III.     The Sacrament of Confirmation
1.    Confirmation - Introduction
2.    Confirmation - General Rules
3.    Rite for confirmation apart from danger of death
4.    Rite for confirmation in danger of death
            IV.     Holy Eucharist
1.    Holy Eucharist - Introduction
2.    Holy Eucharist - General Rules
3.    Rite for holy communion outside of Mass
4.    Communion during Eastertime
5.    Communion for the sick, general rules
6.    Rite for communion for the sick
7.    Rules for celebrating Mass more than once the same day
8.    Mass celebrated by a blind priest
9.    Forty Hours' Adoration
             V.     Penance
1.    Penance - Introduction
2.    Penance - General Rules
3.    Common form for absolution
4.    Rite for absolving from excommunication
5.    General absolution and papal blessing for religious
6.    Rite for absolving from suspension or interdict apart from sacramental confession
            VI.     Anointing of the Sick
1.    Anointing of the Sick - Introduction
2.    Anointing of the Sick - General Rules
3.    Rite for anointing of the sick
4.    Visit and care of the sick
5.    Spiritual assistance to the dying
6.    Apostolic blessing at the hour of death
7.    Rite for commending a departing soul
8.    Prayers at the moment of death
          VII.     Matrimony
1.    Instruction on the Day of Marriage and Exhortation before Marriage
2.    Rite for celebrating marriage
         VIII.     Holy Orders: Priesthood
1.    Holy Orders - Priesthood - Introduction
2.    Rite for ordination of priests
            IX.     The Seven Penitential Psalms and Litany of the Saints
             X.     Liturgy for the Faithful Departed
1.    Liturgy for the Faithful Departed - Introduction
2.    Liturgy for the Faithful Departed - General Rules
3.    Rite for burial of adults
4.    Exequies when the body is not present
5.    Rite for burial of children
6.    Vespers for the dead and prayers at a wake
            XI.     Blessings and other sacramentals, introduction and general rules
1.    Blessings and Other Sacramentals - Introduction
2.    Blessings and Other Sacramentals - General Rules
3.    Blessings for special days and feasts
4.    Blessings of persons
5.    Blessings of animals
6.    Blessings of places not designated for sacred purposes
7.    Blessings of places designated for sacred purposes
8.    Blessings of things designated for sacred purposes
9.    Blessings of things designated for ordinary use
          XII.     Processions
1.    Processions - General rules
2.    Rites for Processions
         XIII.     Exorcism
1.    Exorcism - Introduction
2.    Exorcism - General Rules
3.    Rite for Exorcism
4.    Exorcism of Satan and the Fallen Angels
       XIV.     Litanies
         XV.     Blessings formerly reserved to religious orders
§                     Appendices
1.     Reception of Converts and Profession of Faith
2.     Profession of Faith
3.     Short Form For Profession Of Faith
4.     Short Form For Conditional Baptism Of Adult Converts
5.     The Itinerarium
6.     Blessing at Meals
7.     Home Enthronement of the Sacred Heart
8.     Oath against Modernism

The Secondary liturgical books from the Roman Ritual are as follows:


A. Sacraments 
(NB Holy Orders and confirmation are part of the Roman Pontifical) 


1. The Order of Baptism of Children (Ordo Baptismi Parvulorum) 

- Instructions (rubrics) and texts for the baptism of children. 



2. The Order of Adult Baptism (Ordo Initiationis Christianae Adultorum) 

- Instructions (rubrics) and texts for the baptism of adults. 



3. Concerning the Sacred Communion and the Worship of the Eucharistic Mysteries Outside the Mass (De Sacra Communione et de Cultu Mysterii Eucharistici extra Missam) 
- parts of it was derived from the Ritual and also in the Pontifical


3. The Order of Penance (Ordo Paenitentiae) 

- instructions (rubrics) and texts for the Sacrament of Penance. 



4. The Order of celebrating Matrimony (Ordo Celebrandi Matrimonium) 

- instructions (rubrics) and texts for the Sacrament of Marriage.


5. The Order of the Anointing of the Sick and their Pastoral Care (Ordo Unctionis Infirmorum Eorumque Pastoralis Curae) 

- instructions (rubrics) and texts for the Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick and for pastoral care of the sick. 



6. The Order of Funeral (Ordo Exsequiarum) 

- Instructions (rubrics) and texts for burials. 




B. Sacramentals and Appendixes to the Roman Rituals 




1. Book of Processions (Processionale) 

- Instructions (rubrics) and texts for processions. 

- it is the tenth chapter of the Tridentine Roman liturgical book Rituale Romanum.

- it prints in full the text of the hymns, litanies, and other prayers together with the music which accompanies them. 




2. Litanies (Litanae) 

- The Litany of the Saints with accompanying prayers. 



3. Itinerary (Itinerarium) 

- Prayers and readings on the occasion of a journey. 

A form of prayer used by monks and clerics before setting out on a journey, and for that reason usually printed at the end of the Breviary, where it can be conveniently found when required. Most probably the use of such prayers originated in monastic observance.


4. Blessing at the table (Benediction Mensae) 

- it contains the grace before and after meals 



5. The Roman Calendar (Calendarium Romanum) 

- it contains the arrangement of the feasts of saints according to the liturgical calendar.



THE ROMAN MARTYROLOGY 
(Martyrologium Romanun)

- it is the primary liturgical book of the Roman Catholic Church that provides an extensive but not exhaustive list of the saints recognized by the Church, arranged in order of their anniversaries or feasts. 

- PRE-VAT II: it was read daily in choir at the end of Prime. 

- PRESENT USE: On any weekday that admits celebration of the optional memorial of a saint, the Mass and the office may, if there is a good reason, be of any saint listed in the Martyrology for that day. The name of someone who has only been beatified may be given to a church only if included in the proper calendar of the diocese or country where the church is situated, unless special permission is obtained from the Holy See. 

Reading or Chanting of the Martyrology 

The entry for each date in the Martyrology is to be read on the previous day. Reading in choir is recommended, but the reading may also be done otherwise: in seminaries and similar institutes it has been traditional to read it after the main meal of the day. 

If the Martyrology is read outside of the Liturgy of the Hours, as for instance in the refectory, the reading begins with the mention of the date, followed, optionally, by mention of the phase of the moon. Then the text of the Martyrology is read, ending with the versicle and response "Pretiosa in conspectu Domini – Mors Sanctorum eius" (Precious in the sight of the Lord – Is the death of his Saints). A short Scripture reading may follow, which the reader concludes with "Verbum Domini" (The word of the Lord), to which those present respond: "Deo gratias" (Thanks be to God). This in turn is followed by a prayer, for which texts are given in the Martyrology, and a blessing and dismissal. 

If the Martyrology is read within the Liturgy of the Hours (normally after the concluding prayer of Lauds), the same form is used, but without the optional Scripture reading. Reading of the Martyrology is completely omitted on Holy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday.



MEMORIAL OF RITES (Memoriale Rituum) 

- it is an obsolete liturgical book of the Roman Catholic Church which contains the rites for Candlemas, Ash Wednesday, Palm Sunday, and the last three days of Holy Week in the shortened form previously used in smaller Roman Catholic parish churches where there are no ministers (deacon and subdeacon). It content has been absorbed by other liturgical books.

- It is also called the Little Ritual (Rituale parvum).
-It was the official norm for all such services without ordained ministers.


Sources:

The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) ,  List of Uniform Titles for Liturgical Works of the Latin Rites of the Catholic Church, London, 1981.

The Catholic Encyclopedia

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